Glossary of Common Terms


The Advanced Access Content System (AACS) is the accompanying license and digital rights management which will allow access to and copying of next generation Blu-rayTM systems. AACS includes the following key attributes that makes it a reliable system:

• AES-128 content scrambling
• Media Key Block based revocation
• Software renewability
• Enhanced authentication for PC-based implementations
• Support for managed copying and download-to-burn usage models


A next-generation DVD standard, principally developed by Sony, that supports high definition (HD) video and the larger storage capacity that HD material requires. Blu-rayTM uses a 405-nanometer wavelength blue-violet laser instead of the traditional DVD 650-nanometer red laser. The smaller laser wavelength allows the disc to use smaller pits and tighter tracks. It also uses a thinner cover layer (0.1 mm) than a standard DVD. This moves the data closer to the reading lens. All of these factors combine to fit more data on the same size disc. Blu-rayTM supports 25 GB in a single- layer configuration or 50 GB in a double-layer. Four-layer and eight-layer disc in development can store 100 GB and 200 GB, respectively. This capacity is sufficient for two to four hours of HDTV content on single- and double-layer discs. Blu-rayTM also supports MPEG-2, MPEG-4, AVC, and VC-1 format video. Blu-rayTM is a trademark of the Blu-ray Disc Association.


Digital Cinema Initiatives (DCI) is a joint venture between major Hollywood studios to establish specifications for an open architecture for digital cinema to perform at a high level of reliability and quality.


The Digital Entertainment Content Ecosystem (DECE) is a consortium formed in 2008 by major Hollywood studios, consumer electronics manufacturers, systems integrators, network hardware vendors, and Digital Rights Management vendors to develop technical solutions that help consumers access the content they purchased on different devices and platforms.


A system that protects content so that only authorized users may access or view it; a technology that enables the secure distribution, promotion, and sale of digital content, especially over the Internet. A DRM usually encrypts a file to prevent unauthorized use and enforces usage parameters such as the period of time the file is viewable and whether or not it may be copied or streamed to another device.


Television broadcasts and supporting equipment (including television receivers) that use a digital signal rather than the traditional analog form common to NTSC, PAL, and SECAM. Digital television provides better image and sound fidelity than analog television and generally has higher image resolution and multi-channel stereo sound.


A 43⁄4” (12 cm) high-capacity optical disc standard, introduced in April 1997 as a video delivery format to replace the ubiquitous VHS tape. DVDs commonly carry digital video compressed with the MPEG-2 codec. Even with the occasional digital compression artifact taken into account, a DVD provides a better motion picture recording format than its predecessors: a DVD can hold far more material than a CD or VCD (from 4.7 GB to 17 GB); DVD movies are recorded with more lines of image resolution (480) than videodiscs ( ̃425) or VHS tapes ( ̃250); and DVD audio (sampled at 96 kHz with 24-bits of data per sample) is superior to CD audio (44.1 kHz/16-bits).

  • DVD-5: A single-sided, single-layer (SS/SL) DVD capable of holding 4.7 GB. The most common type of DVD.
  • DVD-9: A single-sided, dual-layer (SS/DL) DVD capable of holding 8.5 GB.
  • DVD-10: A double-sided, single-layer (DS/SL) DVD capable of holding 8.4 GB. The second mostcommon type of DVD. (One must generally flip the DVD over to read the second side.)
  • DVD-18: A double-sided, dual-layer (DS/DL) DVD capable of holding 17 GB.


Digital Video Broadcast(ing), a European standard for digital television technology and the body that regulates the standard. The DVB website is

The high definition portion of the DTV (digital television) standard, including 1080i and 720p formats with a 16:9 aspect ratio and multi-channel CD-quality sound. The lower DTV resolutions (480i and 480p) are part of SDTV (standard definition television). Compared to standard NTSC television, the HDTV image has twice the luminance definition – both vertically and horizontally – and is twenty-five percent wider. All told, an HDTV picture contains five times more information than does the standard television picture.


The Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) system delivers television programming using the Internet Protocol suite over a secure packet-switched network, instead of being delivered through traditional terrestrial, satellite and cable television formats.


Over-the-top refers to video content that is delivered through the open Internet without the typical managed network operated by service providers or broadcasters.


A television receiver (often with an integrated decoder/descrambler and more recently with an integrated digital-to-analog converter) provided as a self-contained unit. Cable and satellite television systems often use set-top boxes to convert the provided signal into a form that can be viewed on the user’s television.


“Unauthorized Redistribution” is re-broadcast or retransmission of content without permission of the content owner or broadcaster. Traditionally, this has been through large or moderate scale unauthorized transmission sites that can be addressed through business-to-business negotiations or manageable law enforcement efforts. With the advent of advanced digital technologies, high- speed Internet access and digital broadcast TV, an increasing number of consumers have the ability to become a broadcaster with the touch of a button.


Video-on-demand (VOD) allows consumers to view video content on request through televisions, computers or devices such as smartphones and tablets. VOD can be transaction- or subscription- based. In the former, a consumer pays for each individual VOD program, whereas in the latter, the consumer pays a set amount (often monthly) for a specific amount of content.